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Design Guidelines GLOSSARY

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DOS--Acronym for "Disk Operating System." A computer operating system.

D-Size--A common drawing size, 22" x 34".

DXF--Acronym for "Drawing Interchange File."

Datum--Theoretically exact planes, lines or points from which other features are located on design drawings.

Debur--To remove the sharp, knife-like edge from parts.

Dedicated Tooling--Commonly referred to as "hard tooling"--is tooling made to produce a specific part.

Delamination--Defective surface condition where scale, slag or other impurities not removed during mill processing affect the surface of the sheet.

Depth Stop--See "Back Gauge."

Die--Tool with a void or cavity which is precisely fitted to a "Punch" used to shear or form sheet metal parts.

Die Angle--Forming term used to denote the inside angle of a matched punch and die set.

Die Clearance--Amount of space between the punch and die opening (per side).

Die Cushion--Large pressurized cylinder, generally housed beneath the bed of a press which is used to apply upward pressure to the lower die.

Die Cut Inserts--Packaging elements, generally of cardboard, which are machine blanked to a specific shape in order to precisely fit a part contour.

Die Marks--Scratches, scrub marks, indentations, galling or burnishing of sheet metal workpieces by tooling.

Dimension--A measurement describing size and/or appearance of a part feature.

Dip Brazing--Metal bonding of parts by molten bath immersion.

Discoloration--(l) Staining. (2) Changing or darkening in color from the standard or original.

Diskette--A flexible plastic disk coated with magnetic oxide and used for storing electronic data.

Double Action--Press utilizing two moving elements.

Double Burned--A condition that may occur on a laser wherein the laser essentially produces a feature twice destroying the part's edge and causing out of dimension condition.

Download--To receive data from another computer.

Drain Holes--Holes placed in the part that are nonfunctional except to allow for drainage.

Draw--A term used interchangeably with tempering in the heat treating process.

Drawing--(1) Engineering document depicting a part or assembly. (2) In metalforming, the stretching or compressing of a sheet metal part into a die by a punch to create a 3-dimensional part.

Draw Ring--Holding device in a die to control material flow and wrinkling during forming.

Dry Film Thickness--Thickness of an applied coating after drying or curing.

Dry Spray--See "Oversprays."

Ductility--Ability of a material to be bent or otherwise formed without fracture.

Dutch Bend--See "Hem."


.Exe--An executable suffix to a computer file denoting it as an execution file.

E-Mail--Electronic mail.

Early Supplier Involvement--Involvement of a supplier during the conceptual development stage of a product.

Edge--A transition between surfaces.

Edge Bulge--Condition resulting from any forming, piercing, hardware insertion or spot welding operation too close to an edge.

Edge Deckle (Mill Edge)--Waviness of an unslit coil edge, as received from the material supplier.

Edge Pucker--Material extrusion beyond an outside edge through metalforming.

Edge-to-Feature--A dimension between the edge of the part and a feature.

Effective Case Depth--The perpendicular distance from the surface of a hardened case to the deepest point at which a specified level of hardness is attained.

Electrodes--(1) In welding, a tungsten rod, (TIG) or consumable metal wire (MIG) which is used as an electrical conductor and arc point between the welding torch and the workpiece. (2) In spot welding, the upper and lower shaped, conductive elements between which, two or more sheet metal parts are squeezed and through which, current flows during resistance welding.

Electrolytically Deposited--Depositing of one material on another (commonly known as plating).

Electron Beam Welding (EBW)--Melting and fusing of metals by use of a collimated stream of electrons traveling at close to the speed of light. The kinetic energy from the electrons converts to heat on impact.

Electroplating--Deposition of a thin layer of metal to a workpiece using an electrolytic process.

Electrostatic Spraying--Method of spray painting in which an electrostatic potential is created between the article and atomized paint particles. The charged particles of paint are attracted to and deposited on the articles being painted. The electrostatic potential is used in some processes to aid the atomization of the paint.

Enclosed Seam and Pocket--Formed, spot welded or welded area that can entrap plating solutions.

End Flare--Seen after cut off, caused by the release of residual forming stresses in material being roll formed, where one longitudinal end springs open and the other springs closed.

Entity--A predefined element that you place in a drawing by means of a single command. A single piece of geometry or text.

Environmental Testing--Testing of a product or finish for resistance to attack by specific elements.

Etching--See "Chemical Etching."

Extruded Hole--Pierced and formed hole in sheet metal in which the metal has been stretched creating a tubular shape.


Feather Edge--Material thinning toward an edge, creating an irregular knife-edge, "tattered" appearance.

Feature-to-Feature--Dimension between two features on a part.

Feed Eccentric--A screw-adjusted device used to set the feed length on a slide forming machine.

Feed Unit--An integral part of the slide forming machine, eccentric-driven and cam controlled, that advances either wire or strip in accurate increments.

Female Tool--A "mold" duplicating the exterior dimensions of the part.

Ferritic--Referring to iron content.

Ferro Magnetic--Various alloys that exhibit magnetic qualities.

Ferrous--Metals containing iron as a major alloying constituent.

File Names--A name assigned to a computer file.

Fillet Weld--Joining method of filling an inside edge with welding metal.

Fit-Up--Degree of physical match between two or more components.

Fixture--Tooling designed to locate and hold components in position.

Flame Hardening--A process consisting of heating a desired area, usually localized, with an oxyacetylene torch or other type of high temperature flame and then quenched to produce a desired hardness.

Flange--Formed projection or rim of a part generally used for stiffness or assembly.

Flat or Matte--Coating surface which displays no gloss when observed at any angle; a perfectly diffused reflecting surface.

Flat Pattern--A two dimensional development that represents the part before it is formed into a three dimensional shape.

Flat Wire--Round wire which has been reduced to a flat state with rounded edges.

Floating Fastener--Hardware which allows the threaded portion to move within its particular confines without rotating, to compensate for misalignment.

Floppy Disk-- See "Diskette."

Flower Diagram--A drawing which superimposes the cross section contour of a roll formed part at each roll station, starting with the flat incoming material and ending with the desired profile. It depicts the anticipated flow of material in the forming process.

Fluting--Series of rounded parallel grooves which shows on the surface of metals.

Flying Die Cutoff--The system used in roll forming to cut the formed shape to length in a continuous operation. Similar in action to a punch press, but designed to allow the die to move in line with the roll formed shape during the cutoff cycle, and to make a cut on the fly based on a signal from a trigger mechanism.

Follower Block (Tail Block)--This serves to clamp the work piece to the tool.

Foreign Matter--Anything visually unrelated to the true nature of the substance under examination.

Form--A bend, or the process of bending a metalformed part.

Form Lifter--A cam-operated motion used for lifting the mandrel or forming in an opposite plane.

Form-to-Form--Dimension between two forms on a part.

Formed Tab--Small flange bent at an angle from the body of a metal workpiece.

Forming--Operation converting a flat sheet metal workpiece into a three dimensional part. See, also "Bending" and "Drawing."

Forming Slides--Cam operated units used to drive tools on a slide forming machine.

Forming Tool--A slide mounted tool used for bending on a slide forming machine.

Fourslide Machine--A machine, either horizontal or vertical, used to fabricate formed metal stampings and wire forms, by the action of four forming slides acting upon a stationary mandrel or center tool.

Front Cut-Off--A device driven by a cam that is mounted on the front shaft on a slide forming machine used to severe the blank from the strip before forming.

Functionality--The degree to which the designed part will perform to meet its intended purpose.

Fuse Welded Joint--Welding method without addition of a filler metal, used to generate little, if any eruption above the original surface level.

Gage--See "Gauge" definition (1).

Galvanic Corrosion--Dissimilar metals in contact with each other in presence of moisture, acting as a battery and causing an electrolytic etching deteriorating effect.

Ganged--See "Nesting."

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)--See "MIG Weld."

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)--See "TIG Weld."

Gas Welding--Melting and fusing metals together by use of an oxygen and flammable gas mixture.

Gauge--(1) Instrument for measuring, testing, or registering. (2) Numeric scale for metal thickness.

Gaylord--See "Master Carton."

Gloss--Subjective term used to describe the relative amount and nature of mirror-like (specular) reflection.

Glossmeter--Instrument for measuring the degree of gloss in relative terms. Such instruments measure the light reflected at a selected specular angle.

Go/No-Go Gauge--Measuring device with two registration elements which determine if a feature to be measured is between two established limits.

Gouge--Surface imperfection, deeper than a scratch, often with raised edges.

Grain Direction--(1) Crystaline orientation of material in the direction of mill rolling. (2) Orientation of a surface finish generated by abrasive method.

Grinding--Process of removing material by abrasion.

Grippers--Material clamping devices often serrated for additional holding force to restrain material during a die operation.

Grit--Mineral particles used for abrasive metal removal.


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Go to the Design Guidelines Overview

Excerpt taken from Design Guidelines for Metal Stampings and Fabrications -- 2nd Edition copyright © 1995 Precision Metalforming Association

Purchase the new Third Edition of Design Guidelines for Metal Stampings and Fabrications copyright © 2004 Precision Metalforming Association at Marketplace today!


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